Saturday, November 7, 2015

Fragile X Review

Therapy or opposite protein or gene
Upregulated processes

S-Adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase activity
tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation

Amino acid transport

Chaperone activity
protects from stress “triggered by elevated levels of FMR1”
Glucose catabolism

leucine and isoleucine improved glucosemetabolismin CCl 4 rats by promoting glucoseuptake in skeletal muscle”

upregulationof these glucosetransporters has been shown to be caused by acute
  • cytokines,
  • angiotensin II,
  • endothelin-1,
  • vascular endothelial growth factor,
  • transforming growth factor-beta,
  • and hypoxia
Green tea?

4. arganine
Gentiana manshurica
folic acid

5. Rhodiola increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and TGF-ß1. - Rhodiola rosea
* *
sertraline therapy might have exerted immunomodulatory effects through a decrease in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and TGF-β

Ubiquitin cycle
In an attempt to get rid
of the excess of FMR1 mRNA, the cell might attract chaperones or elements of the ubiquitin/proteasome system.
Muscle repair?

Neuroprotective effect of silymarin in a MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

J Pérez-H, C Carrillo-S, E García, G Ruiz-Mar… - Toxicology, 2014 - Elsevier
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease secondary to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces in mice and primates histopathological changes ...

Protein folding
Pre-50 upregulated? Purα, Rm62, CUGBP1,
hnRNP A2/B1, SAM68, and DROSHA-DGCR8,
Isomerase activity

GABA α1, 3,4; β2; γ2 cerebellum
GABA α3,
GABA α4;
GABA β2;


Downregulated processes

Oxygen binding (neuroglobin(Ngb) and cytoglobin
(Cygb) are supposed to be involved in oxygen (O2) storage and delivery )

stimulating energy producing, catabolicpathways (fatty acid oxidation, glucose transport, etc.).

Research in Britain has shown that the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelinalso affects AMPK levels

Cytosolic calcium ion concentration elevation
(Ashwaganda, Li+)
Nuclear pore
- Alzheimer's / memory

fisetin: Colophospermummopane mopane,[2]mopani,[citation needed] balsam tree,[2]butterfly tree,[2]or turpentine tree

kaempferolHYPERLINK ",14"and fisetinon thermotolerance, oxidative stress and FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 in the model organism Caenorhabditis …
Capers, canned26.74 mg100 gramsKaempferolKale, raw13.33 mg100 gramsKaempferolDill weed, fresh13.00 mg100gramsKaempferolCress, garden, raw10.30 mg100 gramsKaempferolDock, raw10.00 mg100 gramsKaempferolChives, raw6.16 mg100 gramsKaempferolBroccoliHYPERLINK "", raw4.80 mg100 gramsKaempferolTurnip HYPERLINK ""greens, raw

tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g. Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis
Transcriptional activator activity

expression was decreased for some of
these same genes (for example, gad1, ssadh)

improved memory?: ,α1
overexpression ofgenes for several GABA A receptor subunits (for example,α1,3,4; β2; γ2) and proteins involved in GABA metabolism(gad1, ssadh) has been observed in the cerebellum, but
not the cortex, of CGG dut KI mice, which could be relatedto the motor phenotype observed in FXTAS [82,83].

In BD, however, a suppression of transcription factors involved in cell differentiation may contribute to GABA dysfunction. \par
Glycoprotein biosynthesis
reexposing dark-reared mice to light rapidly upregulatesArc/

Lipid catabolism
Alpha lipoic acid?
Omega 3?

Transcription initiation

Serpina3, a serine protease inhibitor that is released during inflammatory responses, was up-regulated and may reflect the increased prevalence of autoimmune disease (for example, lupus, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, thyroid disease)

Involvement of hippocampal Arc in amnesia and its recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves

A Gautam, R Wadhwa, MK Thakur - Neurobiology of learning and memory, 2013 - Elsevier
... 2.6. RNA in situ hybridization. ... through different receptor system, like NMDA-R, mAChR and TrKB leads to PKA, PKC or ERK dependent increase in Arc mRNA and protein ... Further, NMDA-R activation leads to increase in the transport and translation of Arc mRNA in dendrites. ...

vitamin e?

Whey protein, as exclusively nitrogen source, controls food intake and promotes

NAC, an antioxidant
that promotes glutathione The cruciferous family of vegetables is one of the richest food sources of glutathione. The most potent vegetable is Brussels sprouts. Others include cauliflower, broccoli (particularly the flowers, not the stem), cabbage, kale, bok choy, cress, mustard, horseradish, turnips, rutabagas, and kohlrabi.
  • In addition to the cruciferous vegetables, both garlic (Allium sativum) and the ripe seeds of the common green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) help make glutathione and its dependent enzymes more effective.
  • In the Slovak Republic, researchers discovered in animal studies that eating red beets not only reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels, but also decreased cholesterol deposits in the aorta and increased GST enzyme levels, making the animals less susceptible to chemically induced colon cancers.
  • At the University of Illinois, researchers found that including the herb rosemary in the diet could increase GST enzyme activity. The strongest activity resulted when an extract of the herb was given by injection, but ingesting the herb extract orally (at concentrations of 0.25 to 1.0 percent of the diet by weight) showed a 3.5- to 4.5-fold increase in GST activity, which is very significant.

selenium, which promotes glutathione
peroxidase synthesis and activity

Lipoic acid increases glutathione production


Intermediate filament

Epidermal differentiation
LemonGrass !

Centella Asiatica?

** In BD, however, a suppression of transcription factors involved in cell differentiation may contribute to GABA dysfunction. \par

Cell cycle arrest
TNFα, contributing significantly to translation upregulation of these mRNAs upon cell cycle arrest
Symporter activity


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